Provincialization, 1838-1909

Gullick, J. M. A History of Selangor (1766-1939). Revised ed. MBRAS Monograph 28. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1998, revised 2004.

p. 120. In the 1890s, Selangor received many immigrants from what is now Indonesia, but also at this time an influx of people came also from Patani and Kelantan, settling mainly at Kuala Selangor. [FRB: Many Patani people are also said to have been going to Kelantan 1890-1910, is this connected to the border settlement or other factors?]

Hurgronje, C. Snouck. Mekka in the Latter Part of the 19th Century, tr. J. H. Monahan. Leyden: Late E. J. Brill, Ltd., 1931.

p. 286-87. He notes the central role played by Patani-born scholars in the publications of the Ottoman press in Mecca in the 1880s, which was run by Ahmed ibn Muhammed Zein of Patani. Thus works by Patani scholars were most numerously represented in the Mecca editions. These included: an anthology of traditions concerning the Hereafter by Zein ul-Abidin Patani, an entire series of works by Da’ud ibn Abdullah Patani, who wrote his best known works during the period 1815-40 and whose manuscripts often appeared in the Catalogue of Malay manuscripts in Batavia.

Johns, A. H. “Islam in the Malay World: An Exploratory Survey with Some Reference to Quranic Exegesis,” in Islam in Asia – Volume 2: Southeast and East Asia, ed. Raphael Israeli and Anthony H. Johns. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1984.

p. 134. Documents the Abduh connection between Khota Baru and Mecca bridged by Muhammad Yusuf (Tok Kenali), Sheikh Ahmad, and others who later returned and founded the Majlis Ugama Isti’adat Melayu in Kelantan and promoted Islamic education based on Abduh’s reforms throughout the archipelago.

Kobkua Suwannathat-Pian. Thai-Malay Relations: Traditional Intra-regional Relations from the Seventeenth to Early Twentieth Centuries. East Asian Monographs, ed. Wang Gungwu. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1988.

p. 159. A close connection had always existed between Kelantan and Patani, evidenced by the close relationship between the ruling families of each negeri through the centuries. This is further supported by Rama III’s appointment of Tuan Besar, the first cousin of Sultan Senik Mulut Merah of Kelantan, to the governorship of Muang Tani in the 1840s.

p. 165. Siam saw Kelantan as important to the stability of its position on the peninsula. Thus in the crisis if 1838-41, Rama III repeatedly instructed his generals to hold onto Kelantan at all cost.

Riddell, Peter G. Islam and the Malay-Indonesian World: Transmission and Responses. London: Hurst, 2001.

p. 198-99. Riddell calls for a “Patani Connection” between Mecca and Southeast Asia. This was built by Sheikh Daud bin Abdullah al-Fatani and later bolstered by Sheikh Ahmad, Tok Kenali, and other well-known scholars who, through their work in Mecca and elsewhere, brought portions of Islamic Southeast Asia into the fold of wider Islamic discourse, practice, and belief. Riddell notes the importance of the Ottoman press in publishing many works in Malay.

Sarasin Viraphol, Tribute and Profit: Sino-Siamese Trade, 1652-1853. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977.

p. 206. In the latter part of Rama III’s reign (late 1830s and 1840s?) traded between the four states of Kedah, Patani, Kelantan, and Terengganu and Siam, the former two being under direct rule and the latter two as tributary states. The goods they sent were suitable to the China market and were sold to Chinese merchants in Bangkok in exchange for Chinese goods.

Wyatt, David K. Thailand: A Short History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.

p. 213. Local governors in the seven states of Patani resisted the transference of revenue administration to Siamese control in 1902 and the appointment of Siamese officials to key positions within the local administration. The raja of Patani, Abdul Kadir, went so far as to seek British protection, but was exiled to faraway Phitsanulok, thus diffusing the popular support for independence by separating it from its leadership.


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