Early Politics to 1584

Charney, Michael W. Southeast Asian Warfare, 1300-1900. Handbook of Oriental Studies, Section Three: South-East Asia, v. 16, eds. V. Lieberman, et al. Leiden: Brill, 2004.

p. 66. Cites the use of cannon in Manzur Shah’s escape from the attack on Ayutthaya as indicating its spiritual & political importance (because the raja promises to beat the drum in honor of the cannon for 7 days, if he survives).

Federspiel, Howard M. Sultans, Shamans, and Saints: Islam and Muslims in Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.

p. 41. The northern Malay states of Kedah, Terengganu, Kelantan, and Patani often renewed their ties to Ayutthaya as a defensive measure, for dynastic certification (legitimization?), and for trade. Having a non-Muslim overlord was not an issue in the early centuries.

Hall, D. G. E. A History of South-East Asia. 4th ed. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1981.

p. 197-98, 227. Melaka fought other regions of the peninsula with great success during the reign of “Modafarxa”, especially against the rajas of Pahang, Terengganu, and Patani, and also against the states of Kampar and Indragiri in Sumatra, and that this success was due to alliances with the Javanese, the Chinese, and the Siamese.

p. 224. Parmamesvara sought refuge in Tumasik (Singapore) during a secession dispute in Java where he killed the chieftain there, who had been his host. In 1402, he was driven out by the raja of Pahang or Patani, also a vassal of Siam, and according to one account brother of the murdered chief.

Hashim, Muhammad Yusoff. The Malay Sultanate of Malacca: A Study of Various Aspects of Malacca in the 15th and 16th Centuries in Malaysian History, tr. D. J. Muzaffar Tate. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1992.

p. 38. At the time when Sultan Mahmud conquered Manjong, the sultan told Seri Maharaja to attack and annex Kelantan. At that time, Kelantan was larger than Patani and was ruled by Sultan Mansor Shah who refused to pay homage to Melaka. Seri Maharaja was victorious and brought back three princesses who had been held by Sultan Mansor Shah. One of them, the Princess Onang Kening, became the wife of Sultan Mahmud.

p. 39. Hashim includes an interesting origin story for Patani not found elsewhere. A king of Siam called Chao Seri Bangsa heard news of a state called Kota Mahligai, and vowed that if that state could be defeated, he would embrace Islam. Kota Mahligai was ultimately defeated by Siam, so the king became a Muslim. Chao Seri Bangsa then founded a place which he named Patani, and sent his envoy, Ukon Pola to Melaka with a letter of obeisance. In consequence, Sultan Mahmud installed the ruler of Patani as ruler with the title of Sultan Ahmad Shah. Sultan Mahmud also installed Raja Abdullah of Kampar and the ruler of Kedah.

p. 145. By 1511, Melaka’s dominion over the peninsula and surrounding areas included: the region of the Orang Laut (the Riau-Lingga archipelago), Patani, Kelantan, Kedah, Terengganu (the latter three which had formerly acknowledged the overlordship of Ayutthaya) and became dependencies of Melaka.

Meilink-Roelofsz, Marie Antoinette Petronella. Asian Trade and European Influence in the Indonesian Archipelago between 1500 and about 1630. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1962.

p. 29. Melaka conquered Pahang and established supremacy over Terengganu and Kelantan, but did not dare to take issue against powerful Patani, which was inhabited by Malays, but where Siamese influence was strong.

Reid, Anthony. Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce. Volume 1: The Lands below the Winds. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.

p. 125. In the chronicles, Patani’s defeat of Palembang was attributed to Sultan Manzur Shah’s daulat. Since power was seen as deriving from spiritual sources, it was generally believed that rulers and warriors achieved their success through ascetic and ritual preparation, meditation, magical charms, and their own god-given sanctity, as much as through the strength of their armies.

Reid, Anthony. “Understanding Melayu (Malay) as a Source of Diverse Modern Identities.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 32, no. 3 (2001): 295-313.

p. 300. The fall of Melaka caused a diffusion of Melakan culture across the archipelago both in terms of political culture, most successful in Riau-Johor, which inherited the tradition of rulership and the prestige of a line of kings who descended from the kings of Melaka. But Melakan culture also spread in the form of language, religion (Islam), and cultural practices to diverse ports including Aceh, Patani, Palembang, Banten, Brunei, Makassar, Banjarmasin, and even Cambodia and Siam. This community was a blend of ethnic groups such as Chinese, Luzonian, Malay, South Indian, Gujarati, and Ryukyuan, among others. Thus Malay culture became synonymous with Melakan culture.

Sunait Chutintaranond. “Leading Port Cities in the Eastern Martaban Bay in the Context of Autonomous History,” in Recalling Local Pasts: Autonomous History in Southeast Asia, 9-24. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 2002.

p. 15. To illustrate his point about how political power was fragmented, Sunait points to the writing of Tome Pires who states that Pahang, Trenggan, Kelantam, Say, Patani, Likon, Martara, Callnamsey, Bamchha, Cotinuo, Paperim, and Pamgoray were all ports belonging to the land of Siam, and some of these had kings. They all had junks which were not owned by the king of Siam, but by the merchants and lords of these places. Every one of the ports was considered a chief port by Pires, and he noted that they had a great deal of trade and often rebelled against Siam. This shows that the political ties were extremely fluid, tributaries were weakly controlled, and so forth.

Villiers, John. “The Cash-crop Economy and State Formation in the Spice Islands in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries,” in Southeast Asian Port and Polity: Rise and Demise, eds. J. Kathirithamby-Wells and John Villiers. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1990: 83-105.

p. 91. Villiers lists Patani among the states where a powerful orang kaya class developed which became involved in local politics. Others were: Aceh, Johor, Melaka, Brunei, and Ternate. In such cases, the orang kaya’s source of power was the control of trade and they often came to form a new class of nobility which came to challenge the authority of the ruler.

Wake, Christopher H. “Malacca’s Early Kings and the Reception of Islam.” Journal of Southeast Asian History 5, no. 2 (1964): 104-28.

p. 117. Patani, as a vassal of Siam, ousted Paramesvara from Singapore. It also states that as a ruler of Melaka, he gave tribute to Siam at the time of the arrival of the first Chinese envoy (Yin Ching) to Melaka in 1404. According to the Sejarah Melayu chronicle, Megat Iskandar Shah married a daughter of the ruler of Patani. The straits of Singapore remained a bone of contention between Melaka and Siam, that is, between Siam’s east coast tributaries and Melaka. This persisted until the reign of Muzaffar Shah, when Pahang, Terengganu, and Patani were finally defeated and the Strait passed under the control of Melaka.

Wood, W. A. R. A History of Siam: From the Earliest Times to the Year A.D. 1781, with a Supplement Dealing with More Recent Events. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1926.

p. 119. Just after the Burmese withdrew from Ayutthaya in 1563, a serious rebellion broke out, led by the raja of Patani. The raja had raised an army, supported by a fleet of 200 ships, to fight the Burmese. Finding that he had arrived too late, and observing that the Siamese king was very ill-prepared for resistance, he took Ayutthaya. The king then fled the palace in a panic, but the rebellion was shortly after repressed.

Wolters, O.W. The Fall of Srivijaya in Malay History. London: Lund Humphries, 1970.

p. 115-16. Pires recorded that “one of the principal mandarins of Patani” was the vassal who Ayutthaya ordered to oust Paramesvara from Singapore when he arrived there in 1397 as a refugee from Palembang.

Wyatt, David K. Studies in Thai History: Collected Articles. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1994.

p. 33. Drawn from the Ligor chronicles, Wyatt shows that an isthmian state based on the Nagara Sri Dharmaraja, c. 1200, claimed the following states as tributaries: Saya(puri) (Telubin), Trang, (Pa-)tani, Chumphon, Kelantan, Panthai Samo (Pantai Samo), Pahang, Sa-ulau (unidentified), Sai(-puri) (Kedah), Takua-pa, Phatthalung, and Kra.

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